The shape of the new 1E9E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER SHARP S

By Luc(as) de Groot, Deutßchkenner

G. Palatino’s 1540 writing manual. TypW 525.40.671, Houghton Library, Harvard University.
Black­letter eszetts: one Textura style, one Schwabacher. From a calendar, 1512.

What does the lowercase German double‑s shape look like again? It exists in countless variations, let’s find out why.

Around 500 years ago, the ligature of a long ſ and a short s was used in many Latin-script languages. This perfectly evolved shape is found in many fonts today.

Also around 500 years ago, black­letter was fashionable, following architectural styles.

In black­letter, this character often looked like a combination of a long “s” and a “z”.

Congress with ſs. US Bill of Rights, ratified 1791.
ſs in the word Maaßstab. Andrée’s Weltaltas, 1880.

About 250 years ago, the combination of a long and short “s” was abundantly used in English. German texts printed Latin-script types around 150 years ago commonly featured it, too. The ß is still used in German texts today.

Is it an SS or an SZ? (part 1)

The top could be ſs. The bottom could be ſʒ or a cleaned-up version of ſs.

In Holland, I was taught that the ß in black­letter is a combination of a long and a short “s”, glued together and cleaned up a bit.

The right part of the small “s” looks very much like the black­letter “z” (ʒ), so the resulting cleaned-up shape looks like a long “ſ” and a “ʒ” combined. This is where some naming confusion originated.

This text was written at a period when Latin types often did not have an ß in them. Trans­lated into English, it reads: After a short vowel ſſ or ſs is used, after a long vowel ſʒ (ß). In Latin type normally ss is used for both occasions.

To answer the question “was it SS or SZ in typesetting?”, one should ask: “was it black­letter or Latin, was it after the rules of Adelung or Heyse? When was it, and where was it?” The following table explains the complications, and shows once more that the ʒ-shape only appeared in black­letter:

Blackletter typesetting (Fraktursatz)
                 According to Adelung According to Heyse
Latin typesetting (Antiquasatz)
19th century 20th/21st century
According to Adelung
21st century
According to Heyse

Around 140 years ago, from 1879 onwards, the official rule in Prussia and Bavaria was:

In Latin type, s was used for ſ and s, ss was used for ſſ, and ſs was used for ß (or ſʒ).

Is it an SS or an SZ? (part 2)

Ss or Sz? The German word for fun (Spaß, pronounced with a long vowel) comes from the Italian Spasso. It would be wrong to write it with a “z”. Anyway, historically, the name EsZett is less correct than sharp s. The glyph name for ß is “germandbls”: German double s, and the Unicode name for the capital version is Latin Capital Letter Sharp S, which is long, but very correct.

🇮🇹 Spasso → Spaſs

🚫 Spaſz SPASZ

Other European languages use a z-form to differentiate the pronunciation of s or c.

The German neighbors: in Holland a double vowel is used to make a sound longer. In France, the grave makes it short, the acute long.



Compared with some other European languages, German is not very efficient with the s-sounds.

🇩🇪 sch ss(ß) s z

🇧🇬 ш с з ц

🇹🇷 ş s z ç

🇬🇧 sh s z ts

In German, the s is pronounced softly, like the English z, and the German z is pronounced as “ts”. The combination ss (ß) is pronounced as the English “s”. That is why it is called sharp s in Germany.

🇩🇪 Salzsoße

🇳🇱 Zaltszose

Greek also has two different shapes for the lowercase s, and one shape for the capital S: just like the long s and the short s share the same capital form in German.

🇬🇷 Σσ Σς

🇩🇪 Sſ Ss

Several shapes already exist in Unicode for alternative pronunciations of S and Z: z = ʦ ʧ ʒ ʐ ʑ ʂ ә

So, there would have been various alternative solutions to the German capitalization problem, but no, now we need the new glyph from the last entry in the list below:

  • Straße

The formal development of a capital ß

Around 100 years ago, some large German foundries already added capital versions of ß to their fonts. New fonts lead to new sales, so this might have had economic reasons as well. But it did not catch on.

Capital Eszetts from type specimens printed by the Schelter & Giesecke foundry in 1912 and 1921. The word “Großen” means big, and “Jahresabschluß” means year-end closing. On the in-between lines, there are are three instances of a capital ß designed with an almost full S form that was combined with a narrower Z.

Around 60 years ago, serious efforts were made to design a convincing shape for the character, and many forms we now use today were already proposed back then. But the capital ß did not catch on.

Image from the Papier und Druck magazine, issue 10/1956, p. 101
This is the shape I proposed.
Form suggested by our client.

Around six years ago, a political party, fond of capitals, asked for the capital sharp S to be included.

The feedback was: “I find it very hard to read, please don’t be offended, I built my own proposal…” That looked just like the shape of the lowercase ß in Helvetica :-) LOL! It is not strange that a new glyph cannot be read easily at first. It has to be learned.

The final form we compromised on.

They accepted the version with a rounded top (left), but I think the upper form is better: it is more diagonal and has more authority. And then they used too-tight spacing in their campaign. No wonder they lost votes!

The compromise capital ß in-use on campaign graphics.

How wide should the capital ß be?

Around seven years ago, Christian Thalmann (@CatharsisFonts) made a good manual that described how to build a capital ß. A few surfers commented that his suggestion was too wide. I do not agree: wide is fine, but the counter could be pinched a bit more, to reduce the area of the big inner gap.

The new glyph combines a vertical stroke with a narrowed S/Z shape, and therefore must be visibly wider than other characters with two vertical strokes (like BDGHNPRU), but not as wide as M and W, which each have four “verticals”.

Around five years ago, Ralf Herrmann published an excellent English-language text describing how to design a capital ß. There’s a German version, too. Despite its quality, I do not think that the classification of shapes by city name is appropriate today.

Stroke endings

Analysis of classical capitals reveals that all vertical stroke endings have serifs on both sides of the stroke, and only R and J are often bare-legged exceptions. Thus, the left vertical stroke should have two serifs at the bottom: one left, one right.

By combining elements from U, Z and S, a serif version could look like this. But that doesn’t satisfy everyone.

The missing Serif

Because of room restraints, several serif fonts have only one serif on the left side of the stem, and no serif on the right. Compared with fully serifed capitals, this looks awkward. But since the whole glyph is new and strange, this is not that tragic.

Duden rules

Duden is the German standard for language rules. Since the writing reform of 1996, the lowercase character ß is only used when the preceding vowel is to be pronounced with a long sound. In all-caps writing, ß must be replaced with SS. An exception is made for persons’ names in official documents. In that case, the lowercase form remains. Since June 29, 2017 (officially), a new optional capital version of the letter was added to the German alphabet: ẞ, with Unicode code-point 1E9E. It is left up to the user to decide if they want to use it instead of SS or not.

Even though there are many strong dialects that I have trouble understanding, Austria and Switzerland also use the German language. Austria seems to follow German rules, and they consistently name the glyph scharfes S, or sharp s. Only in some areas of Germany it is called Eszett, inspired by the shape in black­letter typefaces. In Holland we call it ringel‑S. In Switzerland however, the ß glyph has been abolished altogether: they always write ss instead. Even though this might cause confusion for one or two words, in practice the intended meaning can be guessed from context. English probably has more homonyms and homographs; is rock music or stone?

Implementing the capital ß in fonts

It might be tempting to put SS into the 1E9E slot. According to Duden rules, this was grammatically correct – until the official adoption of ẞ in June 2017. However, the glyph was already added to Unicode 10 years ago, along with a visual example. If you don’t like the new glyph, just don’t add it.

An application is NOT supposed to force the user to use it in all-caps typesetting. InDesign (v14) has implemented it correctly. When changing the lowercase ß to small caps or ALL CAPS, the results are ss and SS. These can only be selected as a unity, but react correctly when extra spacing is added. In general, capitals look good with plenty of spacing. When you put a fixed SS into the slot, the spacing will be wrong, sooner or later.

Analysis of the 1E9E glyphs in 270 fonts/families

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Above, I’ve embedded a PDF comparing the capital eszetts in 270 different designs. This selection was not made according to any particular criteria. Instead, the pages show all of the fonts containing a glyph at the Unicode position 1E9E that I could collect within a few days, back in October 2019. Most of the fonts are available as part of Adobe’s CreativeCloud subscription (on MyFonts, only around 5% of fonts contain the new glyph). The families in the PDF are sorted by shape.

New capital eszetts for my Calibri typeface

In 2003, I designed Calibri for Microsoft.

In 2010, Microsoft added a capital sharp S: not nice and definitely too narrow.

For Calibri Light in 2012, I designed and tested three versions of this character:

This is the version we chose:

Since then, Calibri has had different versions of this letter in the different weights.

The Microsoft versions have some problems. When I pointed them out, they asked me to supply new drawings, but these have to be on the same width.

I prepared five variants for Regular and Bold, and a questionnaire for Berlin Typostammtisch attendees to choose their favorite version.

Here are the voting results: the winning shape is already available in the Light weight. That this version fits well with Calibri doesn’t mean other shapes won’t fit other sans serif fonts.

That’s it!

The goal of this publication is to post carelessly designed future versions of this new character. Please spread the word.